[Before 10,000 BCE]
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Inventions Search Results
Years : 1000 to 1500
70 Items listed
|1000||Ambulance||Middle East||horse-drawn in Palestine by Crusaders|
re-invented by Dominique-Jean Larrey
|1000||Bars of Soft Soap||Arabia||made from olive oil and wood ash|
|1000||Cauterization||Moorish Spain||searing of tissue used in surgery by al-Bucasis|
|1000||Cheque||Arabia||in modern Iraq|
|1000||Clothes Iron||Europe||by the Vikings|
|1000||Gold Leaf Thread||Mediterranean||in Cyprus|
|1000||Grenades||Byzantium||filled with petrol / gasoline|
|1000||Kayak, Parka||Polar||by the Inuit|
|1000||Modern Sundial||Moorish Spain||shadow marker parallel to Earth's axis|
|1000||Pizza||Byzantium||in Constantinople (modern Turkey)|
spread West to Italy and East as Lahma
|1000||Thimble||Byzantium||in Corinth (modern Greece)|
|1000||Toothpaste||China||from soap bean powder|
|1020||Parabolic Mirror||Arabia||from polished silver and iron by Ibn al-Haytham|
|1025||Sugar Extraction||Arabia||from sugar cane by the Seljuk Persians|
|1041||Movable Type||China||from clay bricks by Pi Sheng|
|1050||Artillery||China||bombs fired from catapults|
|1078||Tidal Mill||Italy||used in Venice|
|1092||Mechanical Clock||China||by Su Sung|
|1100||Buoys||Baltic||floating casks in the Baltic region|
|1100||Lead Glazed Pottery||Europe||in France and Britain|
|1100||Paper Money||China||made using multicolour printing|
|1100||Seven Colour Printing||Arabia|
|1100||Shawm||Europe||precursor of the oboe, in Sicily|
|1100||Water Powered Hammer Forge||Europe||in Central Europe|
|1125||Tank||China||iron plated armoured car|
|1161||Teargas Grenades||China||made from lime and sulphur|
|1174||Wooden Printing Blocks||Switzerland|
|1180||Parachute||China||re-invented by André Garnerin (France, 1797)|
|1180||Rocket||China||using solid fuel|
|1200||Kickwheel||Europe||for making clay figures|
|1206||Crank-shaft||Arabia||by al-Jazari - converts rotary to linear motion|
|1235||Button Hole||Germany||with re-invention of button|
|1250||Quill||Europe||used with ink to write|
|1277||Land Mines||China||used against Mongol invaders|
|1280||Spinning Wheel||India||first geared machine|
|1283||Salting Herring||Netherlands||by William Beuckelszoon|
|1320||Artificial Insemination||Arabia||for animal breeding, especially horses|
|1320||Hourglass||Europe||for measuring time|
|1350||Weight Driven Clock||Europe|
|1396||Metal Movable Type||Korea||made from bronze|
|1400||Binnacle||Europe||for protecting and keeping level a ship's compass|
|1400||Biological Warfare||Central Asia||catapulting plague victims over city walls|
by the Tartars
|1400||Hydroponics||Central America||by the Aztecs in Xochimilco, modern Mexico City|
|1400||Screw Jack||Europe||for lifting vehicles to repair wheels|
|1430||Spring Driven Clock||Europe|
|1440||Engraving||Germany||with copper plating by Ruprecht Rust|
|1450||Harquebus||Spain||tripod mounted precursor of musket|
|1450||Printing Ink||Europe||from varnish and linseed oil|
|1453||Siege Guns||Ottoman||used in the siege of Constantinople|
|1460||Water Pipe||Ethiopia||originally used for smoking hashish|
|1470||Accordion Fold Books||Central America||by the Aztecs (modern Mexico)|
|1498||Toothbrush||China||with bristles at right angles|
|1500||Nippled Baby Bottle||Europe|
|1500||Watch||Germany||by Peter Henlein|
From 1096, Europe began attacking the Arab world in a series of religious conflicts known as The Crusades. These would last for 200 years. Many Arabic or Asian innovations reached Europe from these contacts, including windmills, boat rudders and hospitals. In 1204, the Crusaders sacked the city of Constantinople, destroying the last remaining writings from Ancient Greece.
In 1071 the Battle of Manzinkart was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the (Turkish) Seljuk Empire. The Turks won and went on to dominate Asia Minor. In 1266 Venetian trader, Marco Polo and his relatives, begin the travels to China that would bring many Chinese inventions to Europe. The Byzantine Empire ended in 1453 when Constantinople was conquered by the (Turkish) Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans would eventually take over the Muslim regions from the Arabs (after the Battle of Merj-Dabik in modern Syria). Christian Spain conquered Islamic Moorish Spain in 1492. The libraries in Toledo and Cordoba formed the basis of university courses in Venice and Genoa and helped begin the Renaissance ("rebirth") in Europe.
Regular contact between Europe and the Americas began after 1492, lead by Spain. This contact would prove disasterous to the Americans as Europeans would destroy most of their cultures and civilisations, including that of the Incas (began c1300) and the Aztecs (from 1370).
Between 1493 and 1555 many plant products passed from the Americas to Europe, including tobacco, pineapples, capsicums, potatoes, tomatoes, chocolate, peanuts, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, corn, popcorn, turkeys, chili peppers and beans. Tomatoes, a crucial part of Italian cusine, reached Italy in 1534. In the other direction, Spain took sugarcane to Cuba (1523) and wheat to Mexico (1528).
A rapid fire crossbow was being used in China c1050. This could fire 2000 arrows in 15 seconds. At the same time the Anglo-Saxons used double bladed spades. Bone setting casts made from flour and eggs were used in Sicily c1100. Paris was the first European city to have city paving (1184).
Around 1100, Europe began using paper (via Moorish Spain) and umbrellas. Arabic numerals reached Europe (again via Moorish Spain) c1100. Mechanical clocks were re-invented in Europe c1275. Sometime after 1300 gunpowder and grenades reached Europe. In 1400 porcelain arrived in Europe. In 1460, the Portuguese brought Japanese folding fans and silk screen printing to Europe.
The Romany (Gypsy) people began migrating from India towards Europe around 1000.
The Battle of Hastings (1066) saw Anglo-Saxon England conquered by the Normans of France. Sugar arrived in England in 1460.
Moveable type was adapted by Johannes Gutenberg (Germany) who printed the first books in Europe in 1454.
Notable writers and artists born during this period included:
Notable scientists, inventors and explorers born during this period included:
Notable monarchs and religious or military leaders born during this period included:
Settlements and cities founded during this period include:
Structures and buildings constructed during this period include:
In 1054, a star appeared in the constellation of Taurus. It was a supernova (exploding star) that was bright enough to be visible in broad daylight (for two months) and to cast shadows at night. It disappeared after two years. Although observed and written about in China, Japan and Arabia it was not reported in Europe.
On 9 May 1386, the Treaty of Windsor was signed between Portugal and England. This treaty has never been broken and is the longest lasting treaty between any two nations. African slaves went on sale in Lisbon (capital of Portugal) in 1441. This would lead to a slave trade that would result in the forced movement of 20 million people from Africa to the Americas and the Caribbean.