Quill : 1250 : Europe

Inventions Search Results

Years : 1000 to 1500

70 Items listed

Generated : 17th December 2017


When
Invention
Place
Notes
1000 AmbulanceMiddle East horse-drawn in Palestine by Crusaders
re-invented by Dominique-Jean Larrey
(France, 1792)
1000 Bars of Soft SoapArabia made from olive oil and wood ash
1000 CauterizationMoorish Spain searing of tissue used in surgery by al-Bucasis
1000 ChequeArabia in modern Iraq
1000 Clothes IronEurope by the Vikings
1000 Gold Leaf ThreadMediterranean in Cyprus
1000 GrenadesByzantium filled with petrol / gasoline
1000 Kayak, ParkaPolar by the Inuit
1000 LongbowWales  
1000 Modern SundialMoorish Spain shadow marker parallel to Earth's axis
1000 PizzaByzantium in Constantinople (modern Turkey)
spread West to Italy and East as Lahma
1000 Portable FlamethrowerChina  
1000 ThimbleByzantium in Corinth (modern Greece)
1000 ToothpasteChina from soap bean powder
1020 Parabolic MirrorArabia from polished silver and iron by Ibn al-Haytham
1025 Sugar ExtractionArabia from sugar cane by the Seljuk Persians
1041 Movable TypeChina from clay bricks by Pi Sheng
1050 ArtilleryChina bombs fired from catapults
1050 Mechanical CalendarArabia  
1078 Tidal MillItaly used in Venice
1092 Mechanical ClockChina by Su Sung
1100 BuoysBaltic floating casks in the Baltic region
1100 Lead Glazed PotteryEurope in France and Britain
1100 Paper MoneyChina made using multicolour printing
1100 Seven Colour PrintingArabia  
1100 ShawmEurope precursor of the oboe, in Sicily
1100 Water Powered Hammer ForgeEurope in Central Europe
1125 TankChina iron plated armoured car
1128 Smoke GrenadesArabia  
1161 Teargas GrenadesChina made from lime and sulphur
1174 Wooden Printing BlocksSwitzerland  
1180 ParachuteChina re-invented by André Garnerin (France, 1797)
1180 RocketChina using solid fuel
1200 KickwheelEurope for making clay figures
1204 SawmillFrance water powered
1206 Crank-shaftArabia by al-Jazari - converts rotary to linear motion
1235 Button HoleGermany with re-invention of button
1250 QuillEurope used with ink to write
1260 Toll RoadsEngland  
1275 SpectaclesItaly  
1277 Land MinesChina used against Mongol invaders
1280 Spinning WheelIndia first geared machine
1280 StuccoItaly by Magaritone
1283 RavioliItaly  
1283 Salting HerringNetherlands by William Beuckelszoon
1304 Cannons, GunsEurope
Arabia
 
1320 Artificial InseminationArabia for animal breeding, especially horses
1320 HourglassEurope for measuring time
1325 Steel CrossbowEurope  
1350 Weight Driven ClockEurope  
1396 Metal Movable TypeKorea made from bronze
1400 BinnacleEurope for protecting and keeping level a ship's compass
1400 Biological WarfareCentral Asia catapulting plague victims over city walls
by the Tartars
1400 Glass BottlesEurope  
1400 Hand GunsEurope  
1400 HydroponicsCentral America by the Aztecs in Xochimilco, modern Mexico City
1400 Playing CardsEgypt  
1400 Screw JackEurope for lifting vehicles to repair wheels
1416 Drift NetNetherlands  
1430 Spring Driven ClockEurope  
1440 EngravingGermany with copper plating by Ruprecht Rust
1450 HarquebusSpain tripod mounted precursor of musket
1450 Printing InkEurope from varnish and linseed oil
1453 Siege GunsOttoman used in the siege of Constantinople
1460 Water PipeEthiopia originally used for smoking hashish
1470 Accordion Fold BooksCentral America by the Aztecs (modern Mexico)
1498 ToothbrushChina with bristles at right angles
1500 Nippled Baby BottleEurope  
1500 Sheep SheersItaly
Belgium
 
1500 WatchGermany by Peter Henlein

© 2017, KryssTal


Key Moments

China and the Arab Empires dominated the early part of this period. The latter part of the period begins the domination of Europe.

From 1096, Europe began attacking the Arab world in a series of religious conflicts known as The Crusades. These would last for 200 years. Many Arabic or Asian innovations reached Europe from these contacts, including windmills, boat rudders and hospitals. In 1204, the Crusaders sacked the city of Constantinople, destroying the last remaining writings from Ancient Greece.

In 1071 the Battle of Manzinkart was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the (Turkish) Seljuk Empire. The Turks won and went on to dominate Asia Minor. In 1266 Venetian trader, Marco Polo and his relatives, begin the travels to China that would bring many Chinese inventions to Europe. The Byzantine Empire ended in 1453 when Constantinople was conquered by the (Turkish) Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans would eventually take over the Muslim regions from the Arabs (after the Battle of Merj-Dabik in modern Syria). Christian Spain conquered Islamic Moorish Spain in 1492. The libraries in Toledo and Cordoba formed the basis of university courses in Venice and Genoa and helped begin the Renaissance ("rebirth") in Europe.

Regular contact between Europe and the Americas began after 1492, lead by Spain. This contact would prove disasterous to the Americans as Europeans would destroy most of their cultures and civilisations, including that of the Incas (began c1300) and the Aztecs (from 1370).

Between 1493 and 1555 many plant products passed from the Americas to Europe, including tobacco, pineapples, capsicums, potatoes, tomatoes, chocolate, peanuts, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, corn, popcorn, turkeys, chili peppers and beans. Tomatoes, a crucial part of Italian cusine, reached Italy in 1534. In the other direction, Spain took sugarcane to Cuba (1523) and wheat to Mexico (1528).

A rapid fire crossbow was being used in China c1050. This could fire 2000 arrows in 15 seconds. At the same time the Anglo-Saxons used double bladed spades. Bone setting casts made from flour and eggs were used in Sicily c1100. Paris was the first European city to have city paving (1184).

Around 1100, Europe began using paper (via Moorish Spain) and umbrellas. Arabic numerals reached Europe (again via Moorish Spain) c1100. Mechanical clocks were re-invented in Europe c1275. Sometime after 1300 gunpowder and grenades reached Europe. In 1400 porcelain arrived in Europe. In 1460, the Portuguese brought Japanese folding fans and silk screen printing to Europe.

The Romany (Gypsy) people began migrating from India towards Europe around 1000.

The Battle of Hastings (1066) saw Anglo-Saxon England conquered by the Normans of France. Sugar arrived in England in 1460.

Moveable type was adapted by Johannes Gutenberg (Germany) who printed the first books in Europe in 1454.

Notable writers and artists born during this period included:

Notable scientists, inventors and explorers born during this period included:

Notable monarchs and religious or military leaders born during this period included:

Settlements and cities founded during this period include:

Structures and buildings constructed during this period include:

In 1054, a star appeared in the constellation of Taurus. It was a supernova (exploding star) that was bright enough to be visible in broad daylight (for two months) and to cast shadows at night. It disappeared after two years. Although observed and written about in China, Japan and Arabia it was not reported in Europe.

On 9 May 1386, the Treaty of Windsor was signed between Portugal and England. This treaty has never been broken and is the longest lasting treaty between any two nations. African slaves went on sale in Lisbon (capital of Portugal) in 1441. This would lead to a slave trade that would result in the forced movement of 20 million people from Africa to the Americas and the Caribbean.


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