||Domestic Gas Lighting||England
||by William Murdoch|
||by Alessandro Volta|
||by Jacquard - for weaving machines|
||by Richard Trevithick - ran on rails|
||by Humphry Davy|
||by Henry Maudslay|
|by N Appert and P Durand|
||by Joseph von Fraunhofer|
for chemical analysis of glowing objects
||by Humphry Davy|
|by Fox Talbot and Daguerre|
||by René Laënnec|
||by William Sturgeon|
||by Charles Macintosh|
||by George Stephenson - steam powered|
||by Charles Wheatstone|
||by Edwin Budding|
||by Barthelemy Thimonnier|
||by Michael Faraday|
||by Gauss and Weber|
||by Jacob Perkins from the USA|
||by Charles Babbage|
||by Francis Pettit Smith|
||by Samual Colt - first multi-shot hand gun|
||by Samuel Morse - for the telegraph|
||by William Robert Grove|
||by Charles Goodyear - for rubber|
||by Rowland Hill|
||by Alexander Bain|
||by Ignaz Semmelweis|
© 2020, KryssTal
Europe (especially Britain and France) continues to dominate with the USA making significant contributions.
In 1801 England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland were united to form the United Kingdom of Britain and Ireland. The Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 saw Britain beat a combined sea force from France and Spain to consolidate its control of the sea. In the Battle of Waterloo (1815) Britain (allied to Prussia, the modern Germany) beat France, ending their domination in Europe. Also in 1815, the USA beat Britain in the Battle of New Orleans, the last battle between these two countries.
In 1813 Russia took control of the Caucus region (modern Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) from Persia (the modern Iran). In 1867, Russia sold Alaska to the USA. In the USA, 14,000 Cherokees were driven from (modern) Georgia to (modern) Oklahoma in an event called The Trail of Tears. Beginning in 1839, the UK forces China to accept opium from the West in a series of conflicts known as The Opium Wars.
In 1830 Joseph Smith (USA) founded a new religion, the Mormons.
Inventors, architects and explorers born during this period include:
- Charles Goodyear, USA inventor, developer of galvanised rubber: born 1800.
- James Clark Ross, Scotish explorer who reached the North Magnetic Pole: 1800.
- Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British civil engineer: 1806.
- Louis Braille, French teacher who developed system of reading for the blind: 1809.
- Elisha Graves Otis, USA inventor of the safety lift (elevator): 1811.
- Samual Colt, USA inventor of revolver hand gun: 1814.
- Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, French architect and engineer: 1832.
- Alfred Bernhard Nobel, Swedish inventor (dynamite) and founder of Nobel prizes: 1833.
- John Boyd Dunlop, British inventor of rubber pneumanic tyres: 1840.
- Karl Friedrich Benz, German inventor of car: 1844.
- Alexander Graham Bell, USA inventor of the telephone: 1847.
- Thomas Alva Edison, USA inventor of the light bulb and phonograph: 1847.
Physicists and mathematicians include:
- Janos Bolyai, Hungarian mathematician who developed non-Euclidian geometry: born 1802.
- Christian Johann Doppler, Austrian physicist who studied the effect of movement on waves: 1803.
- Evariste Galois, French mathematician who developed group theory: 1811.
- George Boole, British mathematician, developer of logic: 1815.
- James Prescott Joule, British physicist who related energy and work: 1818.
- Jean Bernard Leon Foucault, French physicist who measured the speed of light in the laboritary: 1819.
- Armand Fizeau, French physicist who measured the Doppler effect on spectral lines: 1819.
- Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Von Helmholtz, German physicist, (Conservation of Energy): 1821.
- Robert Kirchhoff, German physicist (laws of spectroscopy): 1824.
- William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), British physicist who defined a temperature of absolute zero: 1824.
- James Clerk Maxwell, British physicist (electromagnetic equations): 1831.
- Joseph Stefan, Austrian physicist who studied radiation emitted by hot bodies: 1835.
- Ernst Mach, Austrian physicist who studied moving objects and sound: 1838.
- Ludwig Edward Boltzmann, Austrian physicist who developed the Kinetic Theory of Gases: 1844.
- Wilhelm Konrad Röentgen, German discoverer of x-rays: 1845.
Chemists, biologists and naturalists include:
- Charles Robert Darwin, British naturalist who developed the theory of evolution: born 1809.
- Louis Pasteur, French chemist, descoverer of chirality: 1822.
- Gregor Johann Mendel, Austrian botanist who developed the laws of genetics: 1822.
- Alfred Russel Wallace, British naturalist: 1823.
- Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev, Russian chemist who invented the periodic table: 1834.
- Gerhard Nenrik Hansen, Norwegian microbiologist who discovered the organism causing leprosy: 1841.
- Alexandre Dumas, French writer (Three Muskateers, Count of Monte Cristo): born 1802.
- Hans Christian Andersen, Danish writer of fairy tales (Tom Thumb): 1805.
- Edgar Allan Poe, USA mystery writer: 1809.
- Charles Dickens, British writer (Oliver Twist, Great Expectations): 1812.
- Robert Browning, British poet: 1812.
- Karl Heinrich Marx, German political writer (Das Capital, The Communist Manifesto): 1818.
- Emily Brontë: British writer (Wuthering Heights): 1818.
- Friedrich Engels, German political writer: 1820.
- Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky, Russian writer (Crime And Punishment): 1821.
- Jules Verne, French writer (Around The World In Eighty Days): 1828.
- Leo Nikoayevich Tolstoy, Russian writer (War And Peace): 1828.
- Emily Elizabeth Dickenson, USA poet: 1830.
- Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain), USA writer (Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn): 1835.
Artists and musicians include:
- Frederic Francois Chopin, Polish pianio composer: born 1810.
- Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer: 1811.
- Giuseppe Fortunino Fransesco Verdi, Italian composer of operas: 1813.
- Richard Wagner, German composer: 1813.
- Claude Monet, French impressionist painter: 1824.
- Johann Strauss (the younger), Austrian composer of waltzes (The Blue Danube): 1825.
- Stephen Collins Foster, USA songwriter (Old Folks At Home, Oh Susanna): 1826.
- Hiliaire Germain Edgar Degas, French painter: 1834.
- Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, French sculptor of the Statue of Liberty (given to the USA in 1885): born 1834.
- Charles Camille Saint-Saens, French composer of operas (Samson and Delilah): 1835.
- George Bizet, French composer of operas (Carmen): 1838.
- Paul Cezanne, French painter: 1839.
- Francois Auguste Rene Rodin, French sculptor (The Thinker, The Kiss): 1840.
- Peter Illich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (The Nutcracker Suite): 1840.
- Pierre Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter: 1841.
- Anton Leopold Dvorak, Czech composer: 1841.
- Edvard Hagerup Grieg, Norwegian composer (Peer Gynt): 1843.
- Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakoff, Russian composer (Flight Of The Bumblebee): 1844.
Leaders and monarchs include:
- Mongkut (Rama IV), Siamese modernising king, born 1804.
- Benjamin Disraeli, British prime minsiter: 1804.
- Benito Pablo Juarez, Mexican modernising president: 1806.
- Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian unifier: 1807.
- Abraham Lincoln, USA politician and modernising president: 1809.
- Manuel Montt, Chilean modernising president: 1809.
- Otto Eduard Leopold Von Bismark, German chancellor: 1815.
- Mirza Hosayn Ali Nuri, Persian founder of Bahai religion, 1817.
- Queen Victoria, British monarch: 1819.
- Ulysses Simpson Grant, USA general (civil war) and president: 1822.
- Leopold II. Belgian monarch who devastated central Africa: 1835.
- Lydia Liliuokalani, final Hawaiian monarch, deposed by the USA: 1838.
- Paul Von Hindenburg, German general and politician: 1847.
- Arthur James Balfour, British prime minister, author of the Balfour Declaration: 1848.
Vladivostok was founded by Russians in 1860. The British founded Singapore in 1819 and Melbourne in 1835.
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