||Hot Air Balloon||Portugal
||by Bartolomeu de Gusmão|
||long range and accurate|
||by John Shore|
||by Thomas Newcomen|
||by Gabriel Fahrenheit|
||by Edmond Halley|
||by John Kay|
||by John Harrison|
||Lightning Conductor||North America
||by Benjamin Franklin|
||by John Campbell|
||Condensing Steam Engine||Scotland
||by James Watt - the first efficient engine|
||by Joseph Priestley - the first fizzy drink|
||by John Montagu|
||by Cugnoy - first steam vehicle|
||using vulcanised rubber|
||by Joffroy d'Abans|
||by Henry Cort - for steel production|
||by Benjamin Franklin|
||world wide measuring system|
||by Edward Jenner|
||Ammonia liquified by Louis de Morveau|
||by Aloys Senefelder|
||Domestic Gas Lighting||England
||by William Murdoch|
||by Alessandro Volta|
© 2023, KryssTal
[1500 to 1700][1800 to 1850]
Europe continues to dominate but the first flashes of North America and the USA make their appearance.
Physicists born during this period include:
- Andreas Celsius, Swedish developer of temperature scale: born 1701.
- Benjamin Franklin, North American scientist and politician: 1706.
- Henry Cavendish, English discoverer of Hydrogen: 1731.
- René-Just Haüy, French founder of crystalography: 1743.
- Alessandro Volta, Italian inventor the electric battery: 1745.
- Alexandre Cesar Charles, French developer of the gas laws: 1746.
- Thomas Young, English scientist who developed the wave theory of light: 1773.
- Andre Marie Ampere, French electrical physicist: 1775.
- Joseph Von Fraunhofer, German discoverer of spectral lines: 1787.
- Georg Simon Ohm, German electrical physicist: 1789.
- Michael Faraday, English developer of electric generator: 1791.
- Nicholas Leonard Carnot, French founder of thermodynamics: 1796.
- Joseph Henry, USA developer of the electric motor: 1797.
Biologists born during this period include:
- Carl von Linné (better known as Linnaeus), Swedish biologist who classified planets and animals, born 1707.
- Albrecht von Haller, German founder of neurology: 1708.
- Kaspar Friedrich Wolff, German founder of embryology: 1734.
- Jean-Baptiste de Lamark, French naturalist who developed invertebrate zoology: 1744.
- Edward Jenner, English founder of immunology: 1749.
- Thomas Robert Malthus, English economist who wrote about animal populations: 1766.
- Georges Cuvier, French founder of paleontology: 1769.
Chemists born during this period include:
- Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, German developer of flame tests: born 1709.
- Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, French chemist executed during the French Revolution: 1743.
- John Dalton, English developer of the modern atomic theory: 1766.
- Amadeo Avogadro, Italian chemist who used gases to develop the idea of atoms and molecules: 1776.
- Humphrey Davy, English chemist who isolated several elements: 1778.
- Jons Jacob Berzelius, Swedish developer of chemical symbols: 1779.
Astronomers born during this period include:
- Charles Messier, French astronomer who listed nebulae: born 1730.
- William Herschel, German born English discoverer of the planet Uranus: 1738.
- Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers, German developer of a paradox named after him: 1758.
- Friedrech Wilhelm Bessel, English astronomer, the first to measure a stellar distance: 1784.
Mathematicians born during this period include:
- Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician: born 1707.
- Joseph Louis Lagrange, French developer of algebraic solutions to mechanics: 1736.
- Pierr Simon de Laplace, French mathematician and physical chemist: 1749.
- Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, French: 1768.
- Carl Friedrich Gauss, German: 1777.
- August Ferdinand Möbius, German founder of topology: 1790.
- Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevski, Russian mathematician who developed non-Euclidean geometry: 1792.
Explorers, inventors and other scientists born during this period include:
- John Mitchell, English founder of seismology: born 1724.
- James Cook, English explorer: 1728.
- James Watt, Scottish inventor of the first efficient steam engine: 1736.
- Philippe Pinel, French doctor who began the modern study of mental illness: 1745.
- John McAdam, English developer of modern road building: 1756.
- George Cayley, English founder of aerodynamics: 1773.
- George Stephenson, English engineer who built the first passenger railway: 1781.
- Samuel Finley Breeze Morse, USA inventor of the telegraph: 1791.
- Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis, French scientist who described motion on a spinning globe: 1792.
Artists, writers and musicians born during this period include:
- Immanual Kant, German philosopher: born 1724.
- Thomas Paine, English writer about human rights: 1737.
- Fransisco Jose de Goya, Spanish painter: 1746.
- Wolfgang von Goethe, German dramatist: 1749.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian musician and composer: 1756.
- William Blake, English poet: 1757.
- Robert Burns, Scottish poet: 1759.
- Nguyen Du, Vietnamese poet: 1765.
- William Wordsworth, English poet: 1770.
- Ludwig Van Beethoven, German composer: 1770.
- Joseph Mallord William Turner, English painter: 1775.
- Sequoyah, North American inventor of the Cree writing system: 1776.
- Jacon Ludwig Grimm (1785) and Wilhelm Carl Grimm (1786), Austrian folk story collectors and linguists.
- Lord Byron, English poet: 1788.
- Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, Italian composer: 1792.
- Franz Peter Schubert, Austrian composer: 1797.
Leaders and monarchs born during this period include:
- Maria Theresa, Hapsburg Empress of Austria (and mother of French queen, Marie Antoinette): born 1717.
- George Washington, North American politician and first president of USA: 1732.
- Toussaint L'Ouverture, leader of black slave revolt in Haiti: 1743.
- Louis XVI, king of France at the time of the French Revolution: 1754.
- Horatio Nelson, English admiral: 1758.
- Napoleon Bonaparte, French military leader: 1769.
- Arthur Wellesley, English military leader better known as the Duke of Wellington: 1769.
- Mehmet Ali (also known as Mohammad Ali Pasha), Egyptian leader against Ottoman rule: 1769.
- Bernardo O'Higgins, Chilean military leader: 1778.
- Jose Fransisco de San Martin, Argentinian military leader: 1778.
- Simon Bolivar, South American liberator of Colombia and Venezuela: 1783.
On 1 May 1707 England and Scotland united into a single country, the United Kingdom (or UK). Citizens of this nation are described as British.
In 1752, the United Kingdom adopted the Gregorian Calendar, exactly 150 years after it had been introduced. In that year, 3 September was followed by 13 September in order to remove 11 extra days accumulated by the older Julian calendar. Riots occurred as people demanded their lost days back.
The United States of America (USA) become an independent nation in 1776 and would eventually dominate the world.
The French Revolution began in 1789. In 1790 the Metric System of measurement was developed during the revolution in France.
The Spanish founded San Fransisco in 1776 and Los Angeles in 1781.
KryssTal Related Pages
A reference for the world standard system of measurement, the Metric System. Also included are values for important physical constants and conversion factors for the few countries that do not use the metric system.
[1500 to 1700][1800 to 1850]