[Before 10,000 BCE]
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Inventions Search Results
Years : 10,000 BCE to 4,000 BCE
39 Items listed
|10,000 BCE||Boats||Pacific||dug out logs|
|9000 BCE||Fixed Settlements||Mesopotamia||in modern Iraq|
|9000 BCE||Harpoon||Polar||Made of stone and fired through wooden tubes|
|9000 BCE||Use of Copper||Mesopotamia|
|8500 BCE||Domestication of Sheep, Goat||Mesopotamia||first use of milk|
|8500 BCE||Walled Town||Middle East||Jericho (modern Palestine)|
|8500 BCE||Wheat, Pea, Olive Cultivation||Mesopotamia|
|7500 BCE||Domestication of Pig||China|
|7500 BCE||Rice and Millet Cultivation||China||Yangtze Delta|
|7500 BCE||Terraced Roofs||Middle East||in Catal Huyuk (modern Turkey)|
|7000 BCE||Aubergine Cultivation||Indus Valley||also called Eggplant|
|7000 BCE||Banana Cultivation||New Guinea|
|7000 BCE||Coffee||Ethiopia||date uncertain|
|7000 BCE||Domestication of Cattle||Indus Valley||cow, ox|
|7000 BCE||Domestication of Chicken||Indus Valley||in Harappa (modern Punjabi Pakistan)|
|7000 BCE||Sesame, Barley Cultivation||Indus Valley||Mohenjo Daro in modern Pakistan|
|7000 BCE||Sugar Cane Cultivation||New Guinea|
|7000 BCE||The Yoke||Mesopotamia||power from animals|
|6500 BCE||Weaving||Middle East||modern Israel, Lebanon|
|6200 BCE||Funerary Objects||Mesopotamia||in Samarra (modern Iraq)|
|6000 BCE||Domestication of Donkey, Cat||Egypt||cats for pest control|
|6000 BCE||Fig Cultivation||Egypt|
|6000 BCE||Granary||Indus Valley||storage of excess food|
|6000 BCE||Metal Smelting, Casting||Middle East|
|5400 BCE||Alcohol (Wine)||Mesopotamia|
|5300 BCE||Monumental Buildings||Mesopotamia||the first zigurats by the Eridu (modern Iraq)|
|5000 BCE||Chili, Avocado Cultivation||Central America|
|5000 BCE||Concrete||Europe||floor slabs for huts in Central Europe|
|5000 BCE||Scales, Balance||Egypt||for weighing|
|4500 BCE||City States and Nations||Mesopotamia
Egypt is the oldest continuously existing nation
|4500 BCE||Musical Instruments||Europe, Mesopotamia||pipes made of bone, stringed harp|
|4000 BCE||Apple Cultivation||Central Asia||near Almaty, modern Kazakhstan|
|4000 BCE||Arithmatic||Mesopotamia||by the Sumerians|
|4000 BCE||Cosmetics, Fragrances||Egypt|
|4000 BCE||Domestication of Horse||Europe||modern Ukraine|
|4000 BCE||Ox Drawn Plough||Mesopotamia||improved agriculture|
Two key developments were the building of fixed settlements and the cultivation of certain plants for food. This changed the entire way of life of humans. Fixed settlement and regular food supplies meant that there was more leisure time. Humans could think and specialise. Not everyone had to produce food. Farming could give a food surplus. Some individuals could develop other skills (like making pottery) which they could exchange for food.
The use of fire allowed stone to be replaced by metal. Metals were first extracted from ores over a domestic fire. Metal was easier to mold into required shapes and was stronger. It could also be used for glittering ornamentation.
The first chemists brewed coffee and wine.
The domestication of large animals (the beasts of burden) gave human beings enormous power in agriculture, transport and warfare.
Around 4500 BCE, human settlements began to band together into cities and states. Civilisation had begun. This first happened in Mesopotamia. This is a Greek word meaning "between the rivers". The rivers are the Euphrates and Tigris in the area covering modern day Iraq and also stretching to Syria, western Iran and eastern Turkey. This area is known as "The Cradle of Civilisation".
Other early civilisations also began close to rivers. The little known cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley (along the River Indus and its tributaries in modern day Pakistan). The various settlements along the two main waterways in central China: the Yellow River and Yangtse River. The extensive civilisation along the River Nile (Egypt). Of the countries that exist in the modern world, Egypt has been in existence for the longest period followed by China.
The creation of a social hierarchy, lead to some individuals becoming leaders and priests. The first kings appeared and religion was formalised. Circumcision was being practiced c4000 BCE in Egypt and Greece. The oldest rock-cut tombs date from 4000 BCE (Malta).
The first settlers reached the British Isles c4000 BCE. They worshipped at circular structures called henges.
|Sheep||Asiatic Muflon Sheep|
|Cow (Ox, Cattle)||Aurochs|
|Horse||Wild Asiatic Horse|
|Arabian Camel||Wild Arabian Camel|
|Bactrian Camel||Wild Central Asian Camel|
|Llama, Alpaca||Guanaco (Andes)|
|Donkey||African Wild Ass|
|Water Buffalo||Asian Buffalo|
|Yak||Himalayan Wild Yak|
These are the beasts of burden that have increased the power available to humans. Power to move things, power to cultivate larger areas of land, power and mobility in war, power to have abundant meat available.
Of the 200 or so large animals in the world, only the above 14 have ever been domesticated in all of human history. Many small animals have been domesticated (for example, dog, cat, and guinea pig). These smaller animals help humans in a number of ways (protection, pest control, pets) but the large animals give humans power. Their domestication was therefore a key step in the development of humans.
Many factors must combine together for an animal to be capable of being domesticated. Even if a single factor is missing, domestication will not occur. Animals can be caught in the wild and tamed. But only if they can be bred and changed are they considered to be domesticated. Cheetah and elephant are two animals that can be tamed but have never been domesticated.
These are the factors that will allow an animal to be domesticated and all must be present:
The following table looks at the geography of large animal domestication:
From this table, it is clear that Eurasia is blessed with the overwhelming majority of domesticated large animals. The power that this has given Eurasia has led to this continent becoming the world's most powerful.
Eurasia also has the geographical advantage that it spreads East-West. This means that climate zones, being mainly dependent on latitude, vary little along the continent. Plants domesticated in one area can be made to grow along the continent in the same climatic zone. Africa and the Americas, on the other hand, spread North-South through varying climatic zones. This acts as a barrier to the spread of plant domestication. This barrier also deters the spread of people as well as ideas. Any barrier to the spread of ideas slows down the development of knowledge and inventions.