Pottery : 7900 BC : China

Inventions Search Results

Years : 10,000 BC to 4,000 BC

39 Items listed

Generated : 16th December 2017


When
Invention
Place
Notes
10,000 BC BoatsPacific dug out logs
9000 BC Fixed SettlementsMesopotamia in modern Iraq
9000 BC HarpoonPolar Made of stone and fired through wooden tubes
9000 BC Use of CopperMesopotamia  
8500 BC Domestication of Sheep, GoatMesopotamia first use of milk
8500 BC Walled TownMiddle East Jericho (modern Palestine)
8500 BC Wheat, Pea, Olive CultivationMesopotamia  
7900 BC PotteryChina  
7500 BC Domestication of PigChina  
7500 BC Rice and Millet CultivationChina Yangtze Delta
7500 BC Terraced RoofsMiddle East in Catal Huyuk (modern Turkey)
7000 BC Aubergine CultivationIndus Valley also called Eggplant
7000 BC Banana CultivationNew Guinea  
7000 BC CoffeeEthiopia date uncertain
7000 BC Domestication of CattleIndus Valley cow, ox
7000 BC Domestication of ChickenIndus Valley in Harappa (modern Punjabi Pakistan)
7000 BC Sesame, Barley CultivationIndus Valley Mohenjo Daro in modern Pakistan
7000 BC Sugar Cane CultivationNew Guinea  
7000 BC The YokeMesopotamia power from animals
6500 BC WeavingMiddle East modern Israel, Lebanon
6200 BC Funerary ObjectsMesopotamia in Samarra (modern Iraq)
6000 BC Domestication of Donkey, CatEgypt cats for pest control
6000 BC Fig CultivationEgypt  
6000 BC GranaryIndus Valley storage of excess food
6000 BC Metal Smelting, CastingMiddle East  
5400 BC Alcohol (Wine)Mesopotamia  
5300 BC Monumental BuildingsMesopotamia the first zigurats by the Eridu (modern Iraq)
5000 BC Chili, Avocado CultivationCentral America  
5000 BC ConcreteEurope floor slabs for huts in Central Europe
5000 BC Scales, BalanceEgypt for weighing
4500 BC City States and NationsMesopotamia
Indus Valley
Egypt
China
civilization
Egypt is the oldest continuously existing nation
4500 BC MetalworkEgypt  
4500BC Musical InstrumentsEurope, Mesopotamia pipes made of bone, stringed harp
4000 BC Apple CultivationCentral Asia near Almaty, modern Kazakhstan
4000 BC ArithmaticMesopotamia by the Sumerians
4000 BC BridgesAfrica  
4000 BC Cosmetics, FragrancesEgypt  
4000 BC Domestication of HorseEurope modern Ukraine
4000 BC Ox Drawn PloughMesopotamia improved agriculture

© 2017, KryssTal


Key Moments

Early humans had been nomadic, following herds and roaming to new areas to gather food. They lived in family groups where every member had to contribute to acquiring food.

Two key developments were the building of fixed settlements and the cultivation of certain plants for food. This changed the entire way of life of humans. Fixed settlement and regular food supplies meant that there was more leisure time. Humans could think and specialise. Not everyone had to produce food. Farming could give a food surplus. Some individuals could develop other skills (like making pottery) which they could exchange for food.

The use of fire allowed stone to be replaced by metal. Metals were first extracted from ores over a domestic fire. Metal was easier to mold into required shapes and was stronger. It could also be used for glittering ornamentation.

The first chemists brewed coffee and wine.

The domestication of large animals (the beasts of burden) gave human beings enormous power in agriculture, transport and warfare.

Around 4500 BC, human settlements began to band together into cities and states. Civilisation had begun. This first happened in Mesopotamia. This is a Greek word meaning "between the rivers". The rivers are the Euphrates and Tigris in the area covering modern day Iraq and also stretching to Syria, western Iran and eastern Turkey. This area is known as "The Cradle of Civilisation".

Other early civilisations also began close to rivers. The little known cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley (along the River Indus and its tributaries in modern day Pakistan). The various settlements along the two main waterways in central China: the Yellow River and Yangtse River. The extensive civilisation along the River Nile (Egypt). Of the countries that exist in the modern world, Egypt has been in existence for the longest period followed by China.

The creation of a social hierarchy, lead to some individuals becoming leaders and priests. The first kings appeared and religion was formalised. Circumcision was being practiced c4000 BC in Egypt and Greece. The oldest rock-cut tombs date from 4000 BC (Malta).

The first settlers reached the British Isles c4000 BC. They worshipped at circular structures called henges.


Large Animal Domestication

Animal Ancestor
SheepAsiatic Muflon Sheep
GoatBezoar Goat
Cow (Ox, Cattle)  Aurochs
PigWild Boar
HorseWild Asiatic Horse
Arabian CamelWild Arabian Camel
Bactrian CamelWild Central Asian Camel
Llama, AlpacaGuanaco (Andes)
DonkeyAfrican Wild Ass
ReindeerSiberian Reindeer
Water BuffaloAsian Buffalo
YakHimalayan Wild Yak
Bali CattleBanteng
MithanGaur

These are the beasts of burden that have increased the power available to humans. Power to move things, power to cultivate larger areas of land, power and mobility in war, power to have abundant meat available.

Of the 200 or so large animals in the world, only the above 14 have ever been domesticated in all of human history. Many small animals have been domesticated (for example, dog, cat, and guinea pig). These smaller animals help humans in a number of ways (protection, pest control, pets) but the large animals give humans power. Their domestication was therefore a key step in the development of humans.

Many factors must combine together for an animal to be capable of being domesticated. Even if a single factor is missing, domestication will not occur. Animals can be caught in the wild and tamed. But only if they can be bred and changed are they considered to be domesticated. Cheetah and elephant are two animals that can be tamed but have never been domesticated.

These are the factors that will allow an animal to be domesticated and all must be present:

The following table looks at the geography of large animal domestication:

Region Large
Animals
Domesticated
Animals
Eurasia7213
Sub-Saharan Africa510
The Americas241
Australia10

From this table, it is clear that Eurasia is blessed with the overwhelming majority of domesticated large animals. The power that this has given Eurasia has led to this continent becoming the world's most powerful.

Eurasia also has the geographical advantage that it spreads East-West. This means that climate zones, being mainly dependent on latitude, vary little along the continent. Plants domesticated in one area can be made to grow along the continent in the same climatic zone. Africa and the Americas, on the other hand, spread North-South through varying climatic zones. This acts as a barrier to the spread of plant domestication. This barrier also deters the spread of people as well as ideas. Any barrier to the spread of ideas slows down the development of knowledge and inventions.


Books From Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.com


KryssTal Related Pages

The chemistry of carbon compounds.

Believe it or not, words from the Akkadian language of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires of Mesopotamia are still used in English today.

These are words from the Egyptian language of Pharoaic Egypt.


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