[Before 10,000 BC]
Inventions Search Results
Years : 1 AD to 1,000 AD
92 Items listed
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|10||Detergent||China||using soap beans|
|10||Magnetic Compass||China||using lodestone - an iron mineral|
|10||Smoking Pipes||North America||by Hopewell people|
|20||Residential Plumbing||Rome||with lead pipes and water taps|
|20||Water Powered Pounder||China|
|51||Aulos||Greece||a fore-runner of the bagpipes|
|100||Ball Bearings||Rome||used on turntables on decks of ships|
re-invented by Philip Vaughan (Wales, 1794)
|100||Map Grids||China||by Chang Hing|
|100||Pontoon Bridge||Rome||used to cross the River Rhine|
|105||Paper||China||from mulberry bark by Tsai Lun|
made writing affordable
|132||Seismograph||China||delicately balanced tiger head figures|
|140||Reconstructive Surgery||Mediterranean||in Sicily|
|150||Block Printing||China||using paper and inked stone|
|150||Modern Numbers and Zero||India||by Aryabhata|
(incorrectly called Arabic Numerals)
|190||Abacus||China||the first calculator|
|200||Saddle and Stirrup||Central Asia||full control of horse possible|
|265||Longitude, Latitude on Maps||China|
|300||Gas Street Lighting||Syria||in Caesarea (modern Israel)|
|300||Odometer||China||to measure distance travelled on carriage|
|300||Oil Street Lighting||Syria||in Antioch (modern Turkey)|
|347||Gas Piping||China||bamboo pipes to carry natural gas|
|350||Tea||China||used as a medicine|
|361||Licensing of Doctors||Byzantium||in Constantinople (modern Turkey)|
|370||Paddle Wheel Ships||Rome|
|400||Astrolabe||Egypt||for measurement of time and star positions|
|400||Butter||Europe||introduced by the Vandals|
|400||Hydrometer||Egypt||made of brass for weather prediction|
by Hypatia in Alexandria
|450||Alcohol (Whiskey)||Europe||distilled in Ireland|
|500||Alcohol (Brandy)||China||produced by heating wine|
|500||Silk Screen Printing||China|
|500||Suspention Bridge||China||using iron chains|
|577||Matches||China||sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur|
re-invented by by John Walker (England, 1826)
|600||Drill Bits||China||made from cast iron|
|600||Earthquake Proof Buildings||Byzantium||using metal sheets and braces|
|600||Postal Service||Persia||by the Ummayad Caliphs|
used mounted couriers and 930 stations
|600||Theraputic Sweat Houses||Central America||by the Maya in modern Mexico|
|604||Political Constitution||Japan||with 17 articals|
|640||Ski Boards||Siberia||around Lake Baikal (modern Russia)|
|673||Chemical Warfare||Byzantium||Greek fire by Callinicus which burnt on water|
|700||Blast Furnace||Europe||In Catalonia (modern Spain)|
re-invented in England, 1350
|765||Pictorial Book Printing||Japan|
|800||Comb||Europe||by the Vikings|
|800||Distillation||Arabia||by Jabir ibn Hayyan|
|800||Evaporation for Cooling||Europe||used for cooling water in Estonia|
|810||Tin Glazed Pottery||Arabia||opaque|
|823||Canal Lock||China||by Chiao Wei-Yo|
|823||Rotary Grindstone||Europe||in Holland|
|825||Modern Arithmatic and Algebra||Persia||by al-Khwarizmi|
|870||Candle Clocks||England||using calibrations to mark time|
|900||Fork||Byzantium||in modern Turkey|
|900||Lens||Europe||used for starting fires from sunlight|
|900||Plaster||Arabia||for pottery molds and setting broken bones|
|900||Spool Winder, Spoke Reel||Siam||for making silk thread (modern Thailand)|
|900||Wooden Milk Churn||Europe||in Ireland|
|910||Draft Animal Harness||Europe|
|931||Medical Entrance Exams||Persia||for entrance into medical schools|
|935||Golf||China||with tees and flagged holes|
|953||Fountain Pen||Egypt||reinvented in 1884 by Lewis Waterman (USA)|
|960||Wheel Clock||France||by Abbé Gilbert|
|970||Hospital||Arabia||with nurses, doctors and pharmacists|
in Baghdad (modern Iraq)
|976||Mercury Clock||China||by Chang Su-Hsun|
|1000||Ambulance||Middle East||horse-drawn in Palestine by Crusaders|
re-invented by Dominique-Jean Larrey
|1000||Bars of Soft Soap||Arabia||made from olive oil and wood ash|
|1000||Cauterization||Moorish Spain||searing of tissue used in surgery by al-Bucasis|
|1000||Cheque||Arabia||in modern Iraq|
|1000||Clothes Iron||Europe||by the Vikings|
|1000||Gold Leaf Thread||Mediterranean||in Cyprus|
|1000||Grenades||Byzantium||filled with petrol / gasoline|
|1000||Kayak, Parka||Polar||by the Inuit|
|1000||Modern Sundial||Moorish Spain||shadow marker parallel to Earth's axis|
|1000||Pizza||Byzantium||in Constantinople (modern Turkey)|
spread West to Italy and East as Lahma
|1000||Thimble||Byzantium||in Corinth (modern Greece)|
|1000||Toothpaste||China||from soap bean powder|
The Roman Empire reached its maximum extent in 117. In 395 it spilt into two portions: a Latin speaking Western part with its capital in Rome and a Greek speaking Eastern part based in Constantinople (modern Istanbul in Turkey). The latter became known as the Byzantine Empire. This split was reflected in the religion of Christianity. The Latin speaking Catholics lived in Western Europe while the Greek speaking Orthodox Christians lived in Eastern Europe, Asia Minor and the Middle East.
The Western Roman Empire broke up in 476. This event is known as "the fall of the Roman Empire".
Mohammad, the prophet of Islam, was born in the Arabian Peninsula around 580. He began preaching in 620 in the city of Mecca. His move to Medina in 622 marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. In 632, the religion split into two sects, the majority Sunni and a minority Shia. The preachings of Mohammad were put together into the Muslim scriptures (The Quran) around 655. Muslims believe the contents of the Quran were revealed by God.
Muslim armies conquered much of the Middle East (including Jerusalem in 636), Persia and North Africa (including Egypt in 641 and Carthage in 698). In the East, Afghanistan (664) and Uzbekistan (676) were conquered.
In 711 Tariq ibn Ziyad lead a Moorish army from North Africa into Spain which would remain Muslim for 800 years when it was known as Moorish Spain. The Battle of Tours (732) saw Islam stopped in Southern France by the Franks (who were Christians lead by Charles Martel, born 688). In 673 the Arabs failed to conquer Constantinople, the Byzantine capital, thanks in part to the use of Greek fire.
Arab traders reached the islands of Indonesia in 701, bringing back spices that preserved food and improved its taste.
After about 650, the torch of innovation passed to the Muslim world, dominated by two Arab Empires: Firstly, the Ommayad Empire, centred in Damascus (modern Syria). Later the Abbasid Empire with its capital in Baghdad (modern Iraq). Many classical Greek writings were translated to Arabic, helping preserve them through the northern European dark ages.
During this period, China continued developing and producing many of the items taken for granted in the modern world. Japan, Byzantium and India also made significant contributions.
Around 456, Celtic Britain was invaded by Angles, Saxons and Jutes from northern Germany and southern Denmark: these were the ancestors of the English. Their language would eventually dominate the modern world. The English scholar, Alcuin (born 732) living in (modern) France developed miniscule writing, the "small letters" of the alphabet.
The Vikings, a Scandinavian people, began a series of sea explorations: Ottar became the first person to cross the Arctic Circle by sea in 870; Ingolfur Arnarson sailed to Iceland in 874; Erik Thorvaldson reached Greenland in 982; Leif Erikson reached the coast of (modern day) Canada in 1002. This was the first historical contact between Europe and the Americas.
Around 400, paper was invented in Teotihuacan (modern Mexico) using fig tree bark; ginger began to be used extensively in China. Around 650 the windmill arrived in Europe via the Arabs. Glass for windows and stone for churches began to be used in England in 674. In 785, China was using a floating version of the magnetic compass for navigation. Nitric Acid was produced in the Arab Empires around 750. Hops for brewing beer were first used in Germany around 800. The astrolabe was perfected into an accurate portable timepiece in Persia by 850. In China, the year 910 recorded the first use of gunpowder in war. China was using strike matches by 1000.
Some important people from this period include:
Between 629 and 645, Hsuang-Tsang travelled from China to India and Afghanistan to collect Buddhist teachings and wrote up the account of his travels.
The city of Venice was founded in swampy lagoons in 452 by people fleeing Attila The Hun. Chichen Itza (in modern Mexico) was settled by the Mayans in 455. Paris became the capital of the Frankish Kingdom in 508. Mombassa (modern Kenya) was settled c700 as a result of Swahili-Arab trade. Dublin was founded on the Irish coast in 841 by Norse raiders.
The Dome of the Rock Mosque was built in Jerusalem in 691. The Potola Palace was built in Lhasa (Tibet) in 700 as the home of the Dalai Lama. In 752, Great Buddha in the Todai Temple (in Nara capital of Japan) was constructed. Between 800 and 900, Angkor Wat, the world's largest temple complex, was constructed in Cambodia and Borobudur (the world's largest Buddhist monument) was built in Java (modern Indonesia). The golden domed Shrine of Imam Ali was built in Najaf (modern Iraq) in 977.
These types of numbers were very awkward to write and impossible to calculate with. They were only used for recording purposes. Fingers or the abacus were used for actual calculations. Multiplication tables were horrendous and time consuming to learn as can be seen from the partial example below.
The modern numbers (1 to 9) were invented in India and were more efficient since they were positional. The figure 3 could mean three or thirty or three hundred depending on its position. Only these symbols were required for any number however large. The key to this was the invention of the zero (0). This allowed numbers like 34, 304 and 340 to be distinguished. A number like 1967 means 1 thousand (1000) plus 9 hundred (900) plus 6 tens (60) plus 7 units.
In 825 the Arabs worked out that the Indian numbers could be used for calculation by learning a few simple rules. This was the beginning of modern arithmatic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) using pensil and paper rather than calculating tools. Multiplication tables were simple as position did not affect the result: 2 times 3 was 6 regardless of whether we were talking about units, tens or hundreds.
The Indian numbers eventually reached Europe (where they are known as Arabic Numerals) in time for the scientific revolutions of the 1500s.
By not using letters for numbers, the letters could ber used for unknown or general numbers - algebra was born, a tool now used to solve equations in all branches of science.