Compass : 10 AD : China

Inventions Search Results

Years : 1 AD to 1,000 AD

92 Items listed

Generated : 2nd September 2014

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When
Invention
Place
Notes
10 DetergentChina using soap beans
10 Magnetic CompassChina using lodestone - an iron mineral
10 Smoking PipesNorth America by Hopewell people
20 Residential PlumbingRome with lead pipes and water taps
20 Water Powered PounderChina  
50 Iron ReaperRome  
51 AulosGreece a fore-runner of the bagpipes
100 Ball BearingsRome used on turntables on decks of ships
re-invented by Philip Vaughan (Wales, 1794)
100 Heavy PloughRome  
100 Map GridsChina by Chang Hing
100 Pontoon BridgeRome used to cross the River Rhine
105 PaperChina from mulberry bark by Tsai Lun
made writing affordable
118 WheelbarrowChina  
128 Apartment BlocksRome  
132 SeismographChina delicately balanced tiger head figures
140 Reconstructive SurgeryMediterranean in Sicily
150 Block PrintingChina using paper and inked stone
150 Modern Numbers and ZeroIndia by Aryabhata
(incorrectly called Arabic Numerals)
150 Oyster FarmingChina  
190 AbacusChina the first calculator
190 PorcelainChina  
200 Saddle and StirrupCentral Asia full control of horse possible
248 ZooRome  
265 Longitude, Latitude on MapsChina  
275 AlgebraGreece by Diophantus
300 Gas Street LightingSyria in Caesarea (modern Israel)
300 OdometerChina to measure distance travelled on carriage
300 Oil Street LightingSyria in Antioch (modern Turkey)
347 Gas PipingChina bamboo pipes to carry natural gas
350 TeaChina used as a medicine
361 Licensing of DoctorsByzantium in Constantinople (modern Turkey)
370 Paddle Wheel ShipsRome  
400 AstrolabeEgypt for measurement of time and star positions
in Alexandria
400 ButterEurope introduced by the Vandals
400 HydrometerEgypt made of brass for weather prediction
by Hypatia in Alexandria
450 Alcohol (Whiskey)Europe distilled in Ireland
500 Alcohol (Brandy)China produced by heating wine
500 Silk Screen PrintingChina  
500 Suspention BridgeChina using iron chains
540 Toilet PaperChina  
550 CarpetsPersia  
577 MatchesChina sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur
re-invented by by John Walker (England, 1826)
600 Drill BitsChina made from cast iron
600 Earthquake Proof BuildingsByzantium using metal sheets and braces
600 Postal ServicePersia by the Ummayad Caliphs
used mounted couriers and 930 stations
600 Theraputic Sweat HousesCentral America by the Maya in modern Mexico
604 Political ConstitutionJapan with 17 articals
621 ChessIndia  
630 Pigeon MailArabia  
640 Ski BoardsSiberia around Lake Baikal (modern Russia)
673 Chemical WarfareByzantium Greek fire by Callinicus which burnt on water
700 Blast FurnaceEurope In Catalonia (modern Spain)
re-invented in England, 1350
700 Folding FanJapan  
765 Pictorial Book PrintingJapan  
800 CombEurope by the Vikings
800 DistillationArabia by Jabir ibn Hayyan
800 Evaporation for CoolingEurope used for cooling water in Estonia
800 KimonoJapan  
800 Translucent PorcelainChina  
810 Tin Glazed PotteryArabia opaque
823 Canal LockChina by Chiao Wei-Yo
823 Rotary GrindstoneEurope in Holland
825 Modern Arithmatic and AlgebraPersia by al-Khwarizmi
850 GunpowderChina  
868 Printed BooksChina  
870 Candle ClocksEngland using calibrations to mark time
900 ForkByzantium in modern Turkey
900 LensEurope used for starting fires from sunlight
900 PlasterArabia for pottery molds and setting broken bones
900 Spool Winder, Spoke ReelSiam for making silk thread (modern Thailand)
900 Wooden Milk ChurnEurope in Ireland
910 Draft Animal HarnessEurope  
931 Medical Entrance ExamsPersia for entrance into medical schools
935 GolfChina with tees and flagged holes
953 Fountain PenEgypt reinvented in 1884 by Lewis Waterman (USA)
960 Wheel ClockFrance by Abbé Gilbert
970 HospitalArabia with nurses, doctors and pharmacists
 in Baghdad (modern Iraq)
976 Mercury ClockChina by Chang Su-Hsun
1000 AmbulanceMiddle East horse-drawn in Palestine by Crusaders
re-invented by Dominique-Jean Larrey
(France, 1792)
1000 Bars of Soft SoapArabia made from olive oil and wood ash
1000 CauterizationMoorish Spain searing of tissue used in surgery by al-Bucasis
1000 ChequeArabia in modern Iraq
1000 Clothes IronEurope by the Vikings
1000 Gold Leaf ThreadMediterranean in Cyprus
1000 GrenadesByzantium filled with petrol / gasoline
1000 Kayak, ParkaPolar by the Inuit
1000 LongbowWales  
1000 Modern SundialMoorish Spain shadow marker parallel to Earth's axis
1000 PizzaByzantium in Constantinople (modern Turkey)
spread West to Italy and East as Lahma
1000 Portable FlamethrowerChina  
1000 ThimbleByzantium in Corinth (modern Greece)
1000 ToothpasteChina from soap bean powder

© 2014, KryssTal


Key Moments

Christianity developed as a new religion based on a combination of Jewish Messianic and Greek Gnostic ideas. Its scriptures combined the Jewish writings about law and the sayings of the prophets (Old Testament) with a new set of documents (New Testament) composed between c70 AD and 325 AD about the life, sayings and miracles of a person called Jesus Christ. In the Roman Empire, it was recognised as the state religion in 313 after centuries of persecution. By 380 it was declared the sole religion of the Empire.

The Roman Empire reached its maximum extent in 117. In 395 it spilt into two portions: a Latin speaking Western part with its capital in Rome and a Greek speaking Eastern part based in Constantinople (modern Istanbul in Turkey). The latter became known as the Byzantine Empire. This split was reflected in the religion of Christianity. The Latin speaking Catholics lived in Western Europe while the Greek speaking Orthodox Christians lived in Eastern Europe, Asia Minor and the Middle East.

The Western Roman Empire broke up in 476. This event is known as "the fall of the Roman Empire".

Mohammad, the prophet of Islam, was born in the Arabian Peninsula around 580. He began preaching in 620 in the city of Mecca. His move to Medina in 622 marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. In 632, the religion split into two sects, the majority Sunni and a minority Shia. The preachings of Mohammad were put together into the Muslim scriptures (The Quran) around 655. Muslims believe the contents of the Quran were revealed by God.

Muslim armies conquered much of the Middle East (including Jerusalem in 636), Persia and North Africa (including Egypt in 641 and Carthage in 698). In the East, Afghanistan (664) and Uzbekistan (676) were conquered.

In 711 Tariq ibn Ziyad lead a Moorish army from North Africa into Spain which would remain Muslim for 800 years when it was known as Moorish Spain. The Battle of Tours (732) saw Islam stopped in Southern France by the Franks (who were Christians lead by Charles Martel, born 688). In 673 the Arabs failed to conquer Constantinople, the Byzantine capital, thanks in part to the use of Greek fire.

Arab traders reached the islands of Indonesia in 701, bringing back spices that preserved food and improved its taste.

After about 650, the torch of innovation passed to the Muslim world, dominated by two Arab Empires: Firstly, the Ommayad Empire, centred in Damascus (modern Syria). Later the Abbasid Empire with its capital in Baghdad (modern Iraq). Many classical Greek writings were translated to Arabic, helping preserve them through the northern European dark ages.

During this period, China continued developing and producing many of the items taken for granted in the modern world. Japan, Byzantium and India also made significant contributions.

Around 456, Celtic Britain was invaded by Angles, Saxons and Jutes from northern Germany and southern Denmark: these were the ancestors of the English. Their language would eventually dominate the modern world. The English scholar, Alcuin (born 732) living in (modern) France developed miniscule writing, the "small letters" of the alphabet.

The Vikings, a Scandinavian people, began a series of sea explorations: Ottar became the first person to cross the Arctic Circle by sea in 870; Ingolfur Arnarson sailed to Iceland in 874; Erik Thorvaldson reached Greenland in 982; Leif Erikson reached the coast of (modern day) Canada in 1002. This was the first historical contact between Europe and the Americas.

Around 400, paper was invented in Teotihuacan (modern Mexico) using fig tree bark; ginger began to be used extensively in China. Around 650 the windmill arrived in Europe via the Arabs. Glass for windows and stone for churches began to be used in England in 674. In 785, China was using a floating version of the magnetic compass for navigation. Nitric Acid was produced in the Arab Empires around 750. Hops for brewing beer were first used in Germany around 800. The astrolabe was perfected into an accurate portable timepiece in Persia by 850. In China, the year 910 recorded the first use of gunpowder in war. China was using strike matches by 1000.

Some important people from this period include:

Between 629 and 645, Hsuang-Tsang travelled from China to India and Afghanistan to collect Buddhist teachings and wrote up the account of his travels.

The city of Venice was founded in swampy lagoons in 452 by people fleeing Attila The Hun. Chichen Itza (in modern Mexico) was settled by the Mayans in 455. Paris became the capital of the Frankish Kingdom in 508. Mombassa (modern Kenya) was settled c700 as a result of Swahili-Arab trade. Dublin was founded on the Irish coast in 841 by Norse raiders.

The Dome of the Rock Mosque was built in Jerusalem in 691. The Potola Palace was built in Lhasa (Tibet) in 700 as the home of the Dalai Lama. In 752, Great Buddha in the Todai Temple (in Nara capital of Japan) was constructed. Between 800 and 900, Angkor Wat, the world's largest temple complex, was constructed in Cambodia and Borobudur (the world's largest Buddhist monument) was built in Java (modern Indonesia). The golden domed Shrine of Imam Ali was built in Najaf (modern Iraq) in 977.


Numbers

Before 150, numbers had been recorded with letters or symbols that required new ones as numbers grew larger. For example, the Roman system used I for 1, V for 5, X for 10, L for 50, C for 100, D for 500 and M for 1000. For example, the number 1967 would be written MCMLXVII where M stood for 1000, CM was "one hundred less than a thousand" (900), LX was 50 plus 10 (60) and VII was 5 and 1 and 1 (7). 1000 + 900 + 60 + 7 = 1967.

These types of numbers were very awkward to write and impossible to calculate with. They were only used for recording purposes. Fingers or the abacus were used for actual calculations. Multiplication tables were horrendous and time consuming to learn as can be seen from the partial example below.

 IIIIIIVVXLC CCCDDCMM
IIIVVIVIIIXXXCCC CDDCCCMMDCCCMM
IIIVIIXXIIXVXXXCLCCC DCMCCMDMMDCCMMM
VXXVXXXXVLCCLC MMMMMDMMMMDMMMMM
XXXXXXXLLCDM MMMMMMMMMMM  

The modern numbers (1 to 9) were invented in India and were more efficient since they were positional. The figure 3 could mean three or thirty or three hundred depending on its position. Only these symbols were required for any number however large. The key to this was the invention of the zero (0). This allowed numbers like 34, 304 and 340 to be distinguished. A number like 1967 means 1 thousand (1000) plus 9 hundred (900) plus 6 tens (60) plus 7 units.

In 825 the Arabs worked out that the Indian numbers could be used for calculation by learning a few simple rules. This was the beginning of modern arithmatic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) using pensil and paper rather than calculating tools. Multiplication tables were simple as position did not affect the result: 2 times 3 was 6 regardless of whether we were talking about units, tens or hundreds.

The Indian numbers eventually reached Europe (where they are known as Arabic Numerals) in time for the scientific revolutions of the 1500s.

By not using letters for numbers, the letters could ber used for unknown or general numbers - algebra was born, a tool now used to solve equations in all branches of science.


Books From Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.com


KryssTal Related Pages

Real, rational, irrational, imaginary. An explanation of numbers of different kinds, a little about infinite series and a surprising climax.

How letters are used to solve equations. Simple, simultaneous and quadratic equations covered for the beginner.

Spherical Trigonometry is the trigonometry of triangles drawn on a sphere.

A history of the English Language from its Anglo-Saxon beginnings to the modern tongue.

Some of the hundreds of Greek words now used in the English language.

Some of the hundreds of Latin words now used in the English language.

Many words of Arabic origin entered the English language during Northern Europe's dark ages.

A few words from China are found in English.


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